Qubits: Czech quantum network, quantum computer in Poland, an overview of qubit types and their advantages – Lupa.cz

Kuantovka in the Czech Republic

In the latest issue of CTU TechniCall magazine Thematically focused on safety and security, there is also an article written by the professor Jex, where it discusses in greater detail the Czech participation in EuroQCI (European Quantum Network), but also other activities in the quantum field in the Czech Republic. Probably the most interesting information is the emerging national quantitative infrastructure within EuroQCI. It will be a core quantum network between Prague, Brno and Ostrava with connections to Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland. Metropolitan quantum networks will be established for testing in Prague and Brno, including, for example, NÚKIB, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Defense, the Railway Administration and others.

Quantum physics

What exactly is a photon? This is the title of a nice popular article where they focus on how to understand the photon from different perspectives and a great summary of the entire history of its discovery.

There was also a research paper this week that claims there is reason to suspect that the human brain might be using quantum computing to work.. However, this has not been confirmed by future experiments.

Quantum computers

In the previous summary, I wrote about six quantum computers within EuroHPC, one of which will be within the LUMI-Q project in Ostrava as well. Today we are going to look at another one that will be in Poland, Poznan. Here, the main operator will be the Poznań Center for Supercomputing and Networking, which falls under the Institute of Organic Biochemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In our case, IT4Innovation is within the framework of the University of Ostrava, and then a number of institutions across Europe are involved in the project. Here is the difference. In Poland, several local organizations are directly involved in the project, such as the Center for Theoretical Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences or the company Creotech Instruments, which are already involved in the development of quantum technologies and computers, or mainly supply electronics specialists to manage it.

The Wall Street Journal published an article about a quantum computer from China’s Baidu. The computer is called Qian Shi (meaning “heaven is the root of everything”) and like IBM’s quantum processors, it’s freely available via the cloud.

This meme is very relevant in the quantum world. Specifically, the author created it in response to an article on the quantum annealing standard

Author: Meme

The University of Bristol, Phasecraft and Google Quantum AI have teamed up to conduct joint research on the study of highly correlated electron systems using quantum computers. Precisely interconnected systems are the biggest challenge in computational chemistry, and mastering them could lead to better batteries, more efficient solar cells, etc. In Nature Communication, they publish their interim results in the form of more efficient quantum algorithms and better ways to handle quantum errors.

IBM has begun to install the first private-sector quantum computer called “on site”, that is, at the customer’s site. This customer is the Cleveland Clinic, which has been working with IBM for ten years in the field of quantum computers. Together, they also founded the Discovery Accelerator, where they help unlock ideas in areas such as using quantum computers for drug-targeted research for specific proteins, better prediction of cardiovascular risk, or for genetic sequencing combined with machine learning.

IBM researchers have written an article discussing the development of superconducting qubits and where their future lies. They define what is needed for practical quantum computing and also deal largely with quantum error corrections, what is needed to scale multiple qubits, how to imagine the role of a quantum computer alongside a classical computer, etc.

In The Quantum Leap, they once again published an interesting post that attempts to compare individual types of qubits.. You can find the result in the beautiful infographic below. However, you can find more information in the same article, including specific numbers such as the accuracy, speed of quantum operations, and coherence times of individual qubits.

Comparison of qubit types

Comparison of qubit types

Author: Quantumtech.blog

Quantum software and algorithms

Multiverse Computing, Protiviti, and Ally Financial have released a report and article describing how an algorithm running on a quantum annealer could improve an investment portfolio today., which outperforms the results returned by standard algorithms. Use the D-Wave LEAP Hybrid solver for the calculation. But as I always write privately with quantum annealing, one has to be very careful.

JP Morgan Chase is (relatively) betting on quantum computers. In Japan, they mainly focus on improvement tasks and risk assessment. In general, banking houses are investing a lot in quantum computers — at least in software. Several reasons can be traced. The quantum R&D costs in absolute terms for the banking giants are negligible. Even a small advantage can play a big role, especially in the stock market. And your competitors are engaging in that too, so you don’t want to leave this potential advantage to them alone.

And here is a nice post on how to create quantum algorithms. The bottom line is to create a small version of your problem and generate training data. Then convert them to quantum states and then use back-learning and experimental methods to find a suitable quantum circuit. You end up expanding your problem. It’s actually a general outline of how to approach a general solution to a problem using a quantum computer, where you use your brain instead of machine learning.

Moody’s released the Quantity FAQ. This FAQ gives insight into how Moody’s thinks about quantum computing and where it’s headed.

Another piece of news from Goldman Sachs and AWS regarding their joint research. In this case, they focused on how to efficiently upload data to quantum computers. You might be surprised, but it’s not just about the number of qubits, but also about how fast we can calculate them (the so-called clock speed) and how deep the quantum circuits we can use. This is a relatively important direction of research.

I also recently wrote that quantum machine learning will need less data than classical machine learning. If you are interested, write more about it here.

The most popular quantum programming framework Qiskit has been released in version 0.39.0. Among the most interesting novelties are the possibility of using an external compiler (this is a part of a quantum compiler that rewrites the input code into code that is directly adapted to a specific quantum processor – topology options and optimization), support for fundamentals (predefined core algorithms such as VQE, QAOA), or Support for dynamic circuits (the ability to measure qubits in the middle to enable the IF-ELSE architecture, and possibly even loops) in the switcher. On the other hand, Shor or HHL algorithm classes are marked as deprecated and will be removed in the future.

IBM has written a nice (a little more advanced) post on its blog about the difference between quantum error suppression, mitigation, and correction (In English then Error Suppression, Error Mitigation, Error Correction). For a perfect quantum computer, we’ll need all three methods.

Amazon Braket has added the ability to control superconducting quantum processors at the pulse level. Specifically, quantum processors from Rigetti and Oxford Quantum Circuit can be controlled at this lower level. This new option is called “Braket Pulse”.

Quantum networks and cryptography

Mastercard has already started to manufacture and issue cards with quantum-resistant encryption.

The Quantum Internet Alliance (QIA) has launched a seven-year programWhere 24 million euros have been allocated for the first phase. QIA is an organization supported by, for example, QuTech, ICFO, University of Innsbruck, Paris Center for Quantum Computing, a total of 40 partners, and the goal is to build a prototype of the so-called full-stack quantum information network and in this way stimulate and build the necessary skills and knowledge. And I think they have a chance to be on top of the world.

Rivada Space Networks (Germany) and SpeQtral (Singapore) signed a cooperation agreement. Rivada will launch its global network (constellation) of 600 laser communication satellites in 2024, and SpeQtral will launch its QKD SpeQtral-1 satellite in the same year. The goal of this collaboration is to explore how a QKD solution can represent a security layer on the connection from Rivada.

Quantum Business, Investments, and Grants

Four reasons why your organization should invest in quantum technologies.

The University of Hamburg has been awarded a three-year, €1 million project to research and develop quantum networks with quantum error correction.

Under the Horizon Europe programme, the European Union will support the EuRyQa project with €5 million for a period of three years. The goal of the project is to build a quantum processor based on Rydberg atoms (neutral, highly excited atoms). Major players are involved in this field, including PASQAL or QM Technologies and several universities.

A quantum computing company has announced its plan to build a new center to research and manufacture quantum nanophotons.

QuantrolOx has received an investment of €10.5 million from the EIC (European Innovation Council).. QuantrolOx develops control systems for quantum computers based on machine learning.

The European Commission has confirmed that it will not reduce funds for quantum technologies under the Horizon . programme. This mainly applies to quantum pioneers.

In addition to the role of banks, car companies are increasingly interested in quantum computers. We recently announced a classic collaboration with Rolls-Royce. Likewise, Canadians also announced their collaboration Xanadu and Volkswagen, where they will mainly focus on simulation and developing better batteries using quantum computers. And up to the third together Toyota and Fujitsu collaboration features quantum-inspired digital plasticizing. In fact, this is not their first collaboration. Early in 2020, they collaborated on improving applications for logistics and supply chains. The current cooperation will focus on improving the production of new cars.

And another big player appears to be entering the quantum computing arena. This time it’s TikTok.

Switzerland and the United States sign an agreement for closer cooperation in the field of quantum computers.

PsiQuantum, the developer of optical quantum computers, has won a $22.5 million contract for the US Air Force. In general, optical quantum processors are seen as a very interesting future, and the US armed forces, which often have their own quantum research, do not want to be left behind, but, on the contrary, are against it.


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